Understanding File Systems

A file system is a method for storing and organizing files on a storage medium such as a hard disk, memory card, CD or DVD.

File systems are very complex, and this article is not going to go into any specific detail. However, every computer user can benefit from understanding in very general terms how data is stored on their computer. This knowledge will help you understand how lost data can be recovered, how the chances of successful recovery depend on what has happened to the disk since the files were lost, and why you need to use data privacy software to ensure that deleted files containing sensitive data are actually deleted.

To keep things simple, this article is written mainly from a Windows standpoint. But it is concerned only with the basic principles of file storage, not the actual methods used. These are the same even if you're using a Mac or Linux.

What is a file?

Although a file may seem like a single entity to you, to a computer it is just a collection of blocks of data. The smallest possible block is called a sector, which is the smallest block the disk drive itself will read or write, and is usually 512 characters or bytes. For convenience, Windows uses larger blocks made up of several sectors, called a cluster. Clusters can be from 1024 bytes (1KB) to 32KB in size. Large clusters are inefficient, and waste disk space, since there is always unused space at the end of the last (or only) cluster in a file.

File system

A file is a collection of clusters, in which are stored the data that represents the file. The clusters in a file do not need to be stored next to each other on the disk, or even in the same order that they appear in the file. Windows maintains a list that shows which clusters belong to which file, and in which order, so whether they are next to each other on the disk doesn't matter.

A folder is another term for a directory, which is a special type of file containing a list of files. In fact, a directory is more than just a list of filenames. It contains information about each file, such as its length, the date it was created, the date it was last accessed, and which users have permission to access it. It also contains pointers to the clusters containing the actual data. How, exactly, the directory is structured and what information it contains, is called the file system.

There are many different file systems. On Windows based computers the most common is New Technology File System (NTFS) or the much older File Allocation Table (FAT) system. But since they all do essentially the same job, their principles of operation are the same.

When choosing data recovery software it's important to know the file system used on the disk containing the lost data, because data recovery tools are written to work with specific file systems. As a general rule, floppy disks, pen drives, flash drives, camera memory cards and many removable drives use the FAT or FAT32 file systems. Most internal hard drives on computers running Windows XP and Windows Vista (and many of those running Windows 2000 or NT) use NTFS.

CDs and DVDs use ISO9660, UDF or Joliet. So data recovery software for magnetic and memory card media cannot be used to recover files from optical media, and vice versa.


When files are written to a new, blank disk, their clusters are written contiguously, starting at the beginning of the file and finishing at the end. But as files are deleted, reusable storage space appears between other files, that may not be large enough to hold the data being written. A file may then be written using several groups of clusters occupying different locations on the disk. Such a file is said to be fragmented.

When a file is fragmented, it takes longer to read the file from disk, though the difference is hardly noticeable with modern computers. However, it's harder to recover lost files when they are fragmented. If the directory entry for the file has also been lost, there is no information available to link the different groups of clusters together.

When you run a defragmentation utility, it rearranges the clusters of data so that all the clusters belonging to a file are next to each other, in the right order. This speeds up disk access, because the disk drive only has to position the read/write head once to read all the data of the file.

Defragmenting a drive can improve the chances of successfully recovering files that are subsequently deleted or lost. On the other hand, defragmenting the disk will harm the chances of recovering files that were lost or deleted before it was defragmented, because some of the clues to what the data was will be lost in the process. So doing a disk cleanup followed by a defragment, as many people do, is not a good idea, as if you subsequently discover that you deleted something you shouldn't have, the file may not be recoverable.


When a file is deleted from your computer, it is not really deleted. All that happens is that the directory entry for the file, which points to the list of clusters on the disk containing the file data, is marked to show it is no longer valid. Right after a file is deleted, nearly all of the information about it, including most of the filename, and the list of clusters that contain the data, still remains on the drive, although the operating system no longer shows it.

If you accidentally erased a file, there's a good chance you can get it back. If you realize straight away that you deleted an important file, and immediately use an undelete tool such as Uneraser, you will almost certainly get the file back. However, the longer you leave it, the greater the chances that the directory entry and/or the data itself will be reused by some other file, and the less are your chances of recovering the data intact.

If you don't have an undelete tool to hand, stop using the drive the lost data was on until you have. If the lost files were on the same drive as Windows, avoid using the computer altogether, because even if you don't write anything to that drive, Windows will still be using it. Avoid installing data recovery software to the same drive as your lost files, for the same reason. Either put the hard drive into another computer on which the recovery software has been installed, or use a bootable data recovery CD.

Recycle Bin

Most modern operating systems provide a measure of protection against accidental deletion, called the Recycle Bin, Wastebin or Trash. When you delete a file, it is simply moved to the Recycle Bin folder. All the time that a file remains in the Recycle Bin, it can be recovered, or undeleted, exactly as it was, without the need for any special data recovery tools.

However, not all files are deleted to the Recycle Bin. In Windows only files that are deleted from Explorer automatically go to the Recycle Bin. Files that are deleted from within another application are not, unless the application developer took special steps to ensure it. If you press down the Shift key while deleting a file (Shift+Delete), the file will bypass the Recycle Bin and actually be deleted. If a file is overwritten, by saving new data to it, then the old file is not moved to the Recycle Bin first.

Nevertheless, when you think you must have deleted a file that you need, always look in the Recycle Bin first.

Emptying the Recycle Bin deletes the files stored in it. The disk space that was occupied by the files in the Recycle Bin folder becomes available for reuse. However, this space is not physically erased, so the original file contents are still present. And the operating system doesn't immediately re-use space that has just become available (unless the disk is full, of course.) So even after emptying the Recycle Bin, the files are still fully recoverable.

When a file is deleted from the Windows Recycle Bin, the link with its original filename is lost. This makes it harder to identify what the files are when they have been recovered. Good data recovery products make the task easier by displaying previews of all recoverable files so you can see what they are and decide if you need them and what names to give them.


The fact that files are not physically erased is good news when you delete a file by accident but bad news for privacy. Since the data is still present, even if inaccessible using normal applications, any sensitive or personal information that you want to remove from the computer can easily be recovered using data recovery software. To permanently erase data so that it is not recoverable you must use a tool like Privacy Guardian which will physically overwrite all traces of your data when you delete it.

Another point to consider is that access rights which prevent one user from accessing another's files on the same computer are simply rules that are applied by the operating system. Data recovery software bypasses the operating system to read the data direct from the disk, so it is completely unaware of any access rights that may have been set. To properly protect your data files from unauthorized access it is essential that you encrypt them, or store them in an encrypted container. One privacy product that includes this feature is CyberScrub Privacy Suite.